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06/07/2017 Hitos del pensamiento económico en Venezuela Escrito por el Economista Eduardo Ortiz Etiquetas:Economía; Cámara de Comercio; Venezuela; Eduardo Ortiz
Recursos

Segúneel psicólogo norteamericano, Abraham Maslow, los individuos anhelan una búsqueda continua de superación, lo que simplificaríamos como la escalada de una montaña. Cada vez que alcanzamos y superamos un escollo, nos asentamos sobre ese nivel y, cuando lo tenemos bajo nuestro control, nos enfrentamos a la siguiente dificultad. Maslow lo expresaría gráficamente a través de una pirámide, la cual refleja dos ideas fundamentales: La superación y consolidación de los distintos niveles de necesidades y la jerarquía que existe entre estos. En palabras del propio Maslow, los niveles o etapas quedarían explicados como sigue: "Existen al menos cinco tipos de fines, que podemos llamar necesidades básicas. Brevemente, estas son las fisiológicas, de seguridad, relación, estima y autorrealización".

En la economía moderna, aquella que nació con el primer telar automático en los albores de la Revolución Industrial y que sigue en la actualidad con la Revolución de la Informática, las necesidades más básicas, las fisiológicas (alimento, vestido, salud o cobijo), están en general superadas y totalmente asimiladas, y las personas buscan alcanzar y quemar etapas más elevadas, lo cual los lleva a desarrollar una forma de pensar más compleja. La Modernización de las condiciones materiales de vidas permitió que la mente del ser humano pudiera ampliarse sustantivamente sus fronteras para asimilar ese enorme cuerpo de conocimientos que llamamos realidad, y a su vez esta ampliación permitió sofisticar aún más los procesos productivos. Por ende, es vital, para conocer la modernización política e intelectual en nuestro país el examinar los cimientos culturales con que se construyó la modernización económica venezolana.

 

Eduardo J. Ortiz en el libro que le presentamos a continuación, nos deja claro que, en el caso venezolano, nuestro país como otras naciones del tercer mundo, no creó en un principio, sistemas económicos universales ni engendró grandes ideas que hayan tenido repercusión internacional. Pero Ortiz igualmente nos aclara que Venezuela no importó intacto el pensamiento de otros países, sino que lo supo adaptar a las circunstancias específicas de la economía nacional en cada momento histórico. El autor nos aclara que el pensamiento económico venezolano no era un monopolio exclusivo de las élites del país, sino que abarcó toda la vida nacional, desde los dirigentes de la Cámara de Comercio de Caracas hasta los asesores de los sindicatos, los fundadores del Banco Central y de la Escuela de Economía de la Universidad Central de Venezuela.

En este exquisito y completo libro, Hitos del pensamiento económico en Venezuela, Ortiz desarrolla el aporte de cuatro grandes personajes de la historia venezolana sobre el pensamiento económico de nuestro país del siglo XIX: Simón Bolívar, Juan Germán Roscio, Fermín Toro y Cecilio Acosta, dejándonos claro que no sólo la política era el tema único a tratar para estos personajes fundamentales en la historia de nuestro país. Adicionalmente Ortiz completa este valioso texto, asomando al pensamiento de algunos economistas que desarrollaron su vida y su trabajo en las aulas universitarias en la segunda mitad del siglo XX: Salvador de la Plaza, Domingo Felipe Maza Zavala y Manuel Pernaut.

Si bien la obra del profesor Eduardo J. Ortiz no es completamente inédita en la bibliografía nacional que trata el tema del pensamiento económico nacional, hasta sus más acérrimos detractores no pueden negar el increíble aporte de su libro para llenar los grandes vacíos que existe actualmente en el país alrededor del tema. Un agradable obra dirigida a toda mente lúcida interesada en el vital tema del pensamiento económico venezolano, con especial énfasis para profesores venezolanos de pensamiento económico que dedican parte del curso a exponer las ideas y reflexiones de, al menos, algunos economistas venezolanos.

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